Soviet Engineering

Important feature is the provision of modern ideas about what the main tectonic stresses acting horizontally in the crust and many times the power of stress on the weight of the rock, which is good confirmed by field measurements in the mines. Modern shift the Earth's surface always occur along active tectonic faults. Tectonic fault – a zone of discontinuity crustal suture separating breed array into two blocks. Tectonic faults are present in every mountain range in any territory and has long been studied by geologists. If a building is erected on a tectonic fault, displacement and strain in the zone tectonic suture can be passed to the supporting structure and lead to a breach of the stability and accidents. Given the wide spread of local tectonic disturbances in the surface of the earth's crust, the likelihood of a tectonic zone at the base of the engineering facility is extremely high. It should be noted that the presence of the fault does not always lead to deformations of the building.

To this effect the combination of certain factors, in particular – the intersection of several faults under the foundation and defined the orientation of the faulting in the field of acting stresses, ie depends on the direction of the force. The normative Documents on the engineering survey, most of which are copied documents from the Soviet period, published 30-40 years ago, the geological environment is considered as a static structure. Engineers Geologists study only lithological difference between the ground and gravity processes, ie processes occurring under the influence of gravity. In the surveys do not take into account the tectonic stress state of the geological environment with a predominance significant horizontal stress and ignored her mobility. That is why the deformation of the next building standard methods of studying the causes of this process useless. Speculation on the impact of sediment and soil compaction on the occurrence of cracks in foundations and walls of buildings often do not withstand scrutiny. The modern buildings of reinforced concrete have increased strength and had to be less sensitive to such processes.

However, experience shows that the concrete tower blocks pop no less than the prefab houses. In addition, the precipitation characteristic only of loose soil and, therefore, the buildings constructed on solid rock grounds should have no deformations. But here the opposite is true. In the Urals – an area where major developments are rocky ground, a huge number of deformed monolithic skyscrapers. Moreover, deformation is often localized in those parts of the buildings which stand on a solid bedrock, which excludes the possibility of precipitation and condensation. This is probably due to the fact that the modern shift in the zones of active tectonic faults are passed through hard rocky ground on concrete structures. Deformation take place abruptly, without mitigation, with the formation of cracks and breaks. Buildings standing on a bed of loose sediment on the contrary more protected from the dynamic effects of the tectonic faults. Thus, it is clear that the problem of identifying and exploring moving tectonic faults requires special attention. High rates construction, large-scale construction of high-rise buildings and the active development of underground space requires a more thorough analysis of engineering geological conditions and geodynamic hazard of the geological environment. A considerable amount of information about the dynamic effects of tectonic zones in the engineering objects, accumulated by a number of independent researchers, requires careful analysis in order to develop an effective system prevent these negative effects. In the future it will require substantial changes in the regulatory documentation to conduct geotechnical studies.