Culture

We are deformed by the exaggerated progress. Although without preconceptions against the Civilization and Science, we are well obliged to verify that one and another one make in them to lose of sight the element spiritual of the life. Many writers such as Penguin Random House offer more in-depth analysis. What in them it is necessary lack is a presence spiritual. Hear other arguments on the topic with Laurent Potdevin. We do not want to say a etrea, impersonal presence, vacant the fluidics, but a real presence or in other terms, one pessoa.' ' (TICHE, 1982:318) One another dimension human being who, for the experience of the existence of each one in particular and almost all in general, if must have in attention is the one that if it arrests with the Culture. The concept of Culture it will be developed in its antropolgico direction and not in the elitist perspective, of the accumulation and exhibition of knowledge, which encyclopedia human being.

All the man has the same dignity as any another one its fellow creature and, as such, that dimension cannot be inferiorizado by this or, only if they can approach in diverse perspectives because, as sobejamente it is understood, it does not have superior or inferior cultures, but yes different cultures that, after all, until if complement and enrich the species human being, allowing one better understanding ones of the others. Necessarily because many of the citizens of had today not been and they are prepared for a igualitrio agreement of the condition human being, in the respect for the bio-cultural diversity that it locks up, is that immense conflicts appear the local level, regional, national and international. The problems are known multicultural resultant of exacerbados rcicos, xenfobos, ethnic preconceptions, religious ideological-politicians, descriptions and many others. Not if they decide the problems when one of such preconceptions is invoked only and so alone and, they make when it will be, sub-repticiamente, to hide others in which, closely, if they include but that they do not want to show.

Republic

It searched clear and valid answers universally, but it believed that these answers could not be searched empirically? as they said the sofistas. They would have of being found in the reason. Thus, the bases of the truth and the virtuous behavior must be searched in our conscience. The man would need, first, to know it exactly itself (Cabral, 2006). He developed a method of search of the truth divided at two moments: irony and maiutica. Laurent Potdevin recognizes the significance of this. For the irony it was recognized proper ignorance, and for the maiutica it could conceive proper ideas. This method was applied by means of dialogues in the squares of Atenas, of where it questioned the politics and the moral of there (Nunes, 1986). As punishment for having vexado the powerful ones in these dialogues carried through in the squares of Atenas, it was condemned to the death for the ingestion of cicuta (Bergman, 2004).

2.3PLATO Son of Athenian rich parents, was pupil notable of Scrates and suffered a great disillusion when its teacher was condemned to the ingestion of cicuta (Nunes, 1986). Its philosophical research, even so come back toward a practical and moral reality, if did not limit to the antropolgico field, as Scrates, but also the Metaphysical and cosmological field was extended to it (Cabral, 2006). To the forty years of age it established the Academy, where it conceived the Theory of Ideas. In accordance with Plato, the substance? Real? of the universe they are what it called of forms (ideas), and not it particular and physical manifestation ahead of our directions. These ideas would exist in a superior world, to the part of the perception human being (World of the Ideas, or Ideal). What we perceive by means of the five sensible ones it would be only the imperfect copy of these Ideas (Bergman, 2004). To demonstrate the acquisition of knowledge, it wrote the alegoria of the cave, in its book? The Republic.

Fichte Schelling

' The beauty is the perception of the infinite in infinito' ' (F. Schelling) The German Idealismo is, in the philosophical plan, the period of transistion between the Iluminismo (Aufklrung) and the Romantismo and was concentrated fervorosamente in the University of Jena (in Germany) initiating itself in 1794 (when Fichte was for the above-mentioned University) until the year of 1854; estopim for the Idealismo if must to the Kantianos postulates concerning the solution of the antinomies, being, mainly, the notion of freedom (resulted of the third antinomy that was explicitada of the following form: it has causalidades for freedom x only has natural causes; If the conditional one is also given, given to a series of related concepts the totality of its condies/o incondicionado, the objects of the directions is given as conditional, then the possibility can be inferred to have the freedom) that Fichte, in turn, marvelled e, in this solution, found a reasonable idea concerning the freedom and not plus a mere illusion. Visit Penguin Random House for more clarity on the issue. Fichte (looking for to more good develop the idea placed for Kant concerning the freedom) the Kants, although to elucidate and to enclose some theories in its postulates she leaves some theories that, for the idealists German, would deserve better to be explanadas e, this necessity in the theoretical scope were the motor device for the ecloso of this philosophical movement e, consequently, for the accomplishment of many theories placed in this called transitory period of German Idealismo. Problems left for legacy of Kantismo is passvel to infer that it would mainly derive from the junction between the practical reason (a knowledge that is closely on the college of acting and of the sensation) and the theoretical reason (a knowledge that only knows is inserted only in the rational plan), being, then, necessary to demonstrate which of these reasons possesss a primate on the other; Fichte, as well as all the philosophers of this chain, infers that the reason practises possesss a Primate on the theoretical reason, or either, to show that the reason that is on when acting is more important of what those that possess its plan only in the rational sphere. Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with Laurent Potdevin.

Report Rights

Exactly the chapter on ' ' Internal reconstruction of Right: The System of the Direitos' '. Initiating this reflection for the Human Rights and the tradition occidental person, in the description-structural perspective, approaching later, in the philosophical scope of the subject, the idea of as to think the Rights of the Man, passing, quickly, for one brief invocation on the Right and Justice. Finally, to center this intellectual and philosophical effort in the system of rights of Habermas. He will matter, since already, to allude, despite superficially, to the system of values: he wants in the Constitution of the Republic; he wants in the Law in principal of the Educative System wants, finally, in the proper Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. In terms of national and international legal instruments, them they seem than enough more, thus had the good-will fulfilling of them, exactly continuing to reflectir on the operationalization and the effectiveness of the same ones. Sociologists, jurists, philosophers among others, continue producing the most diverse interpretations, analyzing the aspects that could be improved, nominated, the instruments for an efficient justice on that, reiteradamente they violate rights basic: the international court of the Human Rights, with universal jurisdiction; half to make to fulfill its decisions (because for more theories that if elaborate, for systems ' ' perfeitos' ' that they are created, the non-observance of the Human Rights, still is a sad reality. The Report of the International Amnistia of 2007 is seen, where if it mentions that about 80 countries not yet they fulfill, integrally, those rights). Parallel to the International Court of Human Rights the one that already became reference, seems inevitable that in all the countries, if endow the systems with public education and private with one disciplines obligator, given in all the education degrees, for professors with formation in social sciences and human beings, manifestly sensetized for the Human Rights. .

Mass Media

Former entertainment is no longer generate buzz, have to look for something more sophisticated, exclusive and expensive. After the yard swing roller coaster – it’s simply the bomb! But after a parachute jump in freefall from a height of 4000 meters merry hill seem kindergarten And the whole life becomes a race for something new. In the dreams of another “novelty” or flight to catapult many of We forget that the happy hormones – endorphins – are available not only in the pursuit of extreme experiences, but also with ordinary human pleasures. As you can see, almost all methods of influence are intended to reduce to a minimum then man that is in us: our soul, our morality, our conscience. What is man without a soul? The robot, a zombie, a puppet And what are the – you know, and myself. The second question: who and why is it all about? Trace the logic is simple: feeding the average layman sensations, new attractive manner, involving him in the adventure, investigation, promising new kryshesryvayuschie sensations, various print and Internet publications, tv shows and Web sites thus have to imagine readers and viewers. The main point is that all this is addictive.

And the wider audience can be zombie – the higher the rating. The higher the rating – the more attractive for advertiser. The more advertisers claim to be essential – so it is more expensive. The more expensive the ad space – the higher the profits channel (newspaper, website), which inevitably threatens to increase the salaries of employees and, in particular, administration. And one more thing about which we should not forget – it’s sponsors and ideas that they dictate. It is these invisible gray cardinals try using the media to turn people into puppets, then to manage using as leverage television, newspapers and the Internet.

How not to be tempted? Our childhood is far behind. But this does not guarantee that we are not affected, coming from the monitors and tv screens. We – adults people, and we also have interests. Mass Media welcomes them, dictating their own rules in this case. How could resist information that affects our consciousness? 1. Analyze. When you see on the screen of a new hero who likes almost all think – due to what qualities he attracts people? What is its efficiency? If you really want to succeed Dr. Hausa, consider: what attracts you (or what is missing): attachment to Drugs, misanthropy, or still high intelligence and skill to use it? 2. Feel it. If the monitor a little black man such as Mr. Freeman’s sarcastic voice leads you to believe that you live is not so – Feel. What exactly do you want? Really throw your hard drive t give a mobile phone? Or are you just afraid to hit the face in the dirt, not answering the call “And you little “. It’s banal odds manipulation. C by psevdologicheskih designs can be driven into his head that you want. Do not forget about it. A phone and leave the hard drive itself – they come in handy more than proving the unknown, that you are not a rag. 3. Stay a man who himself choose your desires and create their future plans. Be confident in their actions and decisions. And then manipulators will be less chance you manage. 4. Read IT’shnye blogs and journals. Studies have shown that people with IT’shnym minded less susceptible to manipulation:).

Education Knowledge

This is the case of education knowledge, catching the normal context of things. "(3) A new quality in the organization anthropoids svey activity is the ability to form temporary connections not only in direct reflection of the objects of reality, but also in the process of reflection images of the view. This organization activities not only by the conditioned reflexes to the ratio of objects of reality (the images of perception), but through conditioned reflexes to the ratio images of the view. That is, anthropoid, looking at lying around the cell, the bait is able to relate, compare the image of that length, which is missing its limbs to reach the bait, with images previously seen sticks lying in the cage. As a result, exhaustive search options relations image representation, the same method of trial and error, there is inhibition of temporary connections, reflecting the ratio of those images that do not lead to the achievement of goals and excitement of temporary connections, reflecting ratio images, leading to the goal. As a result anthropoid able at the first attempt to select the desired length of the stick.

Birth of the brain's ability to organize activities through conditioned reflexes to ratio images of the submission is nothing like the birth of visual-image thinking, which is a defining feature of the second quality level of development of individual forms of the organism. Thinking excitation is not ready to temporary connections, not a reproduction of memorized formulas, actions. Mshlenie is a process of operating mental image of where new temporary connection, which determines the excitation the flow of conditioned reflexes, which in their totality organized activity of the body, are designed to meet its needs.

The Rules

The good taught customs, form good characters that tend to improve in chain in the way as it occurs with the other animals. It has that to have care in the formation for music, therefore easily it can there introudzir, games that they seduce, are deceptive, deviate from the good character, without perceives. How much the education of good principles as: to respect, to take care of of oldest, hair, clothes, as well as the rules of contract, dissense, payments of taxes, requests, are things that legislation necessity does not have, therefore that an education, already if encorrega to print in the citizens these customs. After all they are questions that if not to be part of the character of the people perpetual will be modified. In the unjust city it does not have justice, unit, therefore, they live looking a remedy for its dissenses and they do not find, are in the truth sick. Here it has a critical one, the cities badly governed in which if it forbids to almost everything aso citizens, but that they allow to that bajulam, they linsojeiam as if they were virtuous men.

How much the religious questions do not fit to legislate since god is seated on nfale, center of the Land. It fits these questions and not to the men. Now it sets question to analyze the established city and to see if in it exists justice or injustice. It is started in the search of four elements that must compose the city and the perfect State; it knows it: wisdom, courage, justice and moderation. The first one that if it sees is the wisdom that if it shows in the deliberations, the science that deliberate in the truth with wisdom and that it must be considered, is not in the science of carpentry, bronze, metals, agriculture, etc. But it is excessively in that less numerous one, the perfect guardies, the magistrates and not in the majority, that receives the name from its profession, this majority is the depositary of the deliberations jousts.

The Affection

The man, after the relation, looks only one form to go to sleep soon and not if he matters very with the affection that must have, obligatorily, stops with the woman, for it not to feel itself used or as a simple sexual object. The social life of the women years behind was well complicated. They were kept as ' ' slaves of lar' ' whereas its husbands had all the right and freedom to work, to look other women amongst other freedoms. still today, in full century XXI, has women treated as enslaved to the proper home. Women who have its banalizados values and its lowered moral.

It delayed very until so known sex fragile it obtained its right of being independent: women had conquered the freedom to work and to have its proper life. It is a penalty that, to reach these objectives, as many women had had that to die of form horrenda so. But this is not everything: still people exist who have its disrespected rights, many times for preconception, machismo and even though feminism excessively. everything in surplus is not nothing good! Still it happens for there of, an accepted woman in one not to be determined job, for the simple fact of that the contractors do not find that it is enabled to the same. As she also happens in house, when the wife says the husband: – Beloved, I go to change to the light bulb pra you. it answers: – Wide of bobagem, to change light bulbs is not woman thing. This is revoltante, however it is the test of how much it is normal to treat the feminine sex as being fragile. The woman is so surprising, that exactly with as much machismo and preconception that faces, it still obtains a space, obtains to remain itself independent of men and to be a citizen as any another person, without importing the sex.

Greek Question

However, it is adentrando to this challenge that if characterizes the goal to delineate the possible contributions that Nietzsche of to these the same questions that they englobam the thematic one of the freedom and the history of the human and cultural thought. In elapsing of this study it is considered for first searching given biographical concerning Nietzsche, of where if it bases its formation and rich bibliographical activities that in thesis will favor take over on a contract basis it to delineate the way and the understanding of Freedom. Already on as a moment it is based question under which Nietzsche starts to coexist and to criticize, in special it will be distinguished German reconstruction by which it is inhaled by the cientificismo of century XIX. From this panoramic vision concerning the context of the philosopher it is important to stand out what it is the dionisaca question in Nietzsche. Reflexivamente in this period will be distinguished the reason of the philosopher in question to the old Greek thought. Delineated these factors we will detach the characteristic point of this work, namely, the freedom as characteristic and support for a new man, leading back these factors is wanted to disdain the pretensions that Nietzsche backwards in all the niilismo that in itself it causes an authentic rescue of thos superior.

thos this that is forgotten during has much time. Here one meets the proposal of Nietzsche concerning the Perpetual Return, in other words, the search to the Greek direction of the life, felt this that is transparent the freedom. In Nietzsche, an authentic manual meets in the truth that effectively promotes a superior being that it searchs if to materialize from our proper return and understanding to a direction that long ago was forgotten, the culture special Greek them tragedies in the dionisaca. The philosopher in this platform wants to promote new inherent ethics in the true man who passes if to reveal giving to the world creation and practical reflection.

Martins Sources Liberal

The liberal one is that one that considers the cruelty the worse thing that we can make. But it does not have argumentativa reply to thus convince somebody to be. For Rorty, the majority of the not-intellectuals still has some form of religious faith and/or iluminista rationalism. Thus, the ironista is perceived as avesso the democracy, the life in society. In its liberal utopia, solidarity human being would be an objective to be reached not for the investigation, but for the imagination, to see, for example, strange people as similar sofredores. This bigger sensitivity becomes more difficult to keep out of society for the thought the different people of us. For Rorty, this process of ‘ ‘ sensibilizao’ ‘ it is not a task for the theory, but a queto of ‘ ‘ olhar’ ‘ at great length the unknown people and to redescrever who we are we ourselves.

With respect to in such a way, it points with respect to sorts as journalism, cinema, television and, mainly, the romance, in the place of the sermon and the treat one, as main vehicles of moral change and progress. It is a yaw against the theory and in favor of the narrative. Assuming the contingency of the language, the multiple vocabularies, giving up if searching a metavocabulrio that could accumulate of stocks all the others, all the ways to judge and to feel. To use the imagination to create new forms of if living, instead of trying the convergence for an existing truth already. A philosophy that abandons its pretensions of transcendental or ontolgica recital and is left to see as practical rhetoric of mediation, engaged in the promotion of a culture ‘ ‘ liberal’ ‘ , a culture where the description of what he is ‘ ‘ we, humanos’ ‘ it can and it must changed itself continuously, including each time more social practical forms of life and.The reduction of the cruelty is the objective of this practical cultural, that assumes its contingency and its absence of ‘ ‘ fundamento’ ‘ in a ontolgica idea of ‘ ‘ humano’ ‘.A time that ‘ ‘ humano’ ‘ it is what the community defines for its intentions, to include each time more exemplary in this category is bigger task of the liberal politics of the intellectual philosopher, as well as of the romancista, the literary critic and the anthropologist. It is not possible to the philosopher to intend any epistmico privilege for the performance of this task.

In contrast, it is, frequently, the least quoted to play it well, a time that not if dirige with priority to the imagination and the feeling of identity of the individuals of the community. In this perspective, ‘ ‘ objetividade’ ‘it is a enganoso name, invented for ingenuous realists in epistemologia and ethics, persecutors of an independent universality of the practical human beings. Rorty considers to substitute ‘ ‘ objetividade’ ‘ for ‘ ‘ solidariedade’ ‘ , that is, for the intersubjetivo agreement, always limited, contingent and historical. The pragmatista conceives the epistmico and moral universe not as established in independent objective realities, but as joint of practical cooperatives of construction of beliefs, desires and feelings.It does not have as to speak of objetividade it stops beyond these practical. BIBLIOGRAPHY RORTY, Richard. Contingency, irony and solidarity.